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The introduction of Medical Ultrasound Probe principle and Its Piezoelectric Components

The imaging system of medical ultrasound probe mainly relies on the ultrasonic transducer as the sensing element, which enables the ultrasonic probe to realize sector scanning under the drive of micro-motor, and obtains the histological characteristics of the target site through the echo signal in the form of ultrasonic echo, thus achieving the purpose of clinical diagnosis and treatment. The acquisition of ultrasonic echo depends on the inverse voltage effect and positive voltage effect of piezoelectric crystal of ultrasonic transducer. Its main structure includes control, transmitting and receiving, signal processing circuit, transducer, image processor and output. Of course, these are inseparable from the control of power supply. Positive piezoelectric effect refers to the change of shape of piezoelectric crystals along a certain direction under the action of external forces, which leads to polarization phenomenon inside them. The most direct manifestation is that there are positive and negative charges on the surface of piezoelectric crystals, but once the external forces are removed, the crystal charges will disappear. On the contrary, the inverse voltage effect is to add electric field to the polarization direction of the crystal. Under the action of external electric force, the shape of the crystal will change, but when the electric field is removed, the crystal will return to its original shape. Piezoelectric element is the core component of the transducer of the ultrasonic probe. It is made of piezoelectric material. In the endoscope imaging system, the transformation of acoustic wave and electric signal is realized by the positive voltage effect and the inverse voltage effect of piezoelectric crystal itself. Because piezoelectric element is the core component of the transducer of the ultrasonic probe, the performance of the whole ultrasonic probe depends on the quality of the piezoelectric material. Piezoelectric materials generally include piezoelectric semiconductors, polymer piezoelectric materials, high melting point single crystals, piezoelectric ceramics and so on. The materials of transducers for ultrasonic probe used in modern clinical diagnosis are usually made of piezoelectric ceramics. The shape of piezoelectric ceramics decides its machinability is relatively strong. It can be machined into the desired shape according to its needs. Its adaptability to the environment is unparalleled by other crystal materials. It has a strong stability and its electrodes are firm and not easy to fall off. In addition, the diversity of its crystals can meet the needs of piezoelectric materials for different ultrasonic probes, which makes it possible to produce piezoelectric ceramics. It is the first choice of piezoelectric materials.
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